What is Whaling? How to Identify and Prevent Whaling Attacks

Haseeb Awan
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March 26, 2023
Modified On
April 5, 2023

In This Article


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Modified On
April 5, 2023

As technology advances, cyber threats have become more sophisticated, and one of the most dangerous of these is the whaling attack. This attack targets high-profile individuals and organizations intending to gain access to confidential information or funds. In this article, I will discuss what a whaling attack is, how it differs from other phishing attacks, who are the common targets, how to identify a whaling attack, what to do if you are a victim of one, and provide some case studies to illustrate the severity of this cyber threat.

What is a Whaling Attack?

A phishing attack targets high-level executives or individuals accessing sensitive information. The attack aims to access confidential or valuable data, such as financial information or trade secrets. Unlike traditional phishing attacks, which cast a wide net in hopes of catching a few unsuspecting victims, a whaling attack is highly targeted and often uses personalized messaging to trick the victim into handing over sensitive information.

Whaling attacks often involve using social engineering tactics, such as impersonating a trusted colleague, supplier, or business partner, to trick the victim into providing sensitive information or transferring funds. For example, the attacker may send an email that appears to be from the CEO of the victim's organization, requesting that funds get transferred to a new account. The email may include a sense of urgency, such as claiming that the transfer is required to complete an urgent business deal, to increase the likelihood that the victim will act quickly.

Common Targets of Whaling Attacks

The typical targets of whaling attacks are high-profile individuals, such as CEOs, CFOs, other top executives, and organizations. These individuals and organizations are often targeted because they can access sensitive information or funds, making them valuable targets for cybercriminals. Additionally, high-profile individuals may be less likely to question requests from their superiors, making them more vulnerable to social engineering tactics used in whaling attacks.

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Understanding the Risks of a Whaling Attack

The consequences of a successful whaling attack can be devastating. Not only can it result in the loss of sensitive data, but it can also damage a company's reputation and lead to legal and financial repercussions. Whaling attacks are hazardous because they often exploit high-level executives' trust in their colleagues and business partners.

Common Tactics Used in Whaling Attacks

Whaling attacks can take many forms, but they often use social engineering techniques to maneuver the victim into divulging confidential information or performing an action that compromises their security.

1. One common tactic is impersonating a trusted colleague or business partner using a fake email address or social media account. The attacker may use information gleaned from social media profiles or other sources to craft a compelling message that appears legitimate.

2. Another tactic is to use urgent or time-sensitive language to pressure the victim into taking action without thinking it through. For example, the attacker may claim that a critical business deal is on the line and that the victim must act quickly to avoid losing out.

How is a Whaling Attack Different from Other Phishing Attacks?

A whaling attack is a phishing attack geared explicitly towards high-level executives or individuals accessing sensitive information. Unlike other phishing attacks that cast a wide net, whaling attacks are highly targeted and require more effort from the attacker.

Whaling attacks use various techniques, including social engineering and email spoofing. The attacker's goal is to convince the victim that they are someone they are not, such as a trusted colleague or a member of a legitimate organization. Once the victim has been successfully deceived, the attacker can gain access to sensitive information, such as login credentials or financial data.

1. One of the critical differences between whaling attacks and other phishing attacks is the level of sophistication involved. Whaling attacks require a deep understanding of the victim's organization, including their job role, responsibilities, and access privileges. It means attackers must conduct thorough research and survey before launching an attack.

2. Another key difference is the potential impact of a successful whaling attack. Because whaling attacks had targeted high-level executives, the information could be susceptible, such as trade secrets or financial data. It means the potential financial and reputational damage to the victim's organization can be significant.

Organizations must take a multi-faceted approach to protect against whaling attacks, including employee training, technology solutions, and robust policies and procedures. It can include implementing two-factor authentication, email filtering, monitoring tools, and regular cybersecurity awareness training for all employees.

In conclusion, whaling attacks are a highly targeted form of phishing attack that requires a significant amount of effort on the attacker's part. Due to their potential impact, organizations must protect themselves against this cyber threat. By implementing a comprehensive cybersecurity strategy, organizations can reduce the risk of falling victim to a whaling attack and protect their sensitive information from falling into the wrong hands.

How to Identify a Whaling Attack

The key to identifying a whaling attack is to look for red flags that indicate that the message may not be legitimate. Some common tocsin to look out for includes the following:

Unusual requests:

Whaling attacks often involve unusual requests, such as requesting that funds be transferred to a new account or requesting sensitive information that is not generally shared via email.


Whaling attacks often include a sense of urgency, such as claiming that the transfer is required to complete an urgent business deal, to increase the likelihood that the victim will act quickly.


Whaling attacks are highly personalized and tailored to the specific victim, so if the message appears generic or impersonal, it may be a sign that it is not legitimate.

Suspicious sender:

Whaling attacks often involve impersonation, so if the sender's email address or name appears suspicious, it may be a sign that the message is not legitimate.

Suppose you receive a message that includes any of these red flags. In that case, it is essential to question the message's legitimacy and take steps to verify its authenticity before taking any action.

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How to Prevent a Whaling Attack

Whaling attack prevention requires a multi-pronged approach that includes technical and behavioral measures. Following are some measures you can take to protect yourself and your organization:

  • Implement robust password policies and two-factor authentication to make it harder for attackers to access your accounts.
  • Train employees on recognizing and responding to whaling attacks, including verifying the sender's identity and reporting suspicious messages.
  • Use email filtering tools to block suspicious messages and identify potential phishing attempts.
  • Use data protection technologies. People make mistakes, and hackers are specialists in social engineering. As a last resort, implement data practices that make it difficult for one individual to cause damage.
  • Limit the amount of personal information publicly available on social media and other platforms.
  • Flagging external emails can warn users that the attacker is not who they claim to be. Attackers rarely attack from within the same company. This strategy can raise awareness of an attack.
  • Executives should have as little sensitive information on their public profile as feasible; hobbies, birthdays, friends, and addresses can all get used in an attack. The best technique to prevent cyber criminals from viewing confidential details is to use privacy restrictions.
  • Solutions like data loss prevention offer a crucial last line of protection against whaling and other social engineering threats, preventing the exfiltration of sensitive data even if an employee gets tricked into attempting to send it to an attacker.
  • Develop a protocol for verifying any requests for sensitive information or funds, such as requiring a phone call or in-person meeting.

Actions to Take if You Fall Victim to a Whaling Attack

Even with the best prevention measures, falling victim to a whaling attack is still possible. If this happens, acting quickly to minimize the damage is essential. Here are some steps you should take:

Notify your IT department:

Your IT department can help to assess the damage and take steps to prevent further attacks.

Notify any business partners or customers:

Notify any business partners or customers who may have been affected by the breach.

Change your passwords:

If you have provided any login details or passwords, it is essential to change them immediately.

Notify your bank:

If funds have to get transferred, it is essential to notify your bank as soon as possible to try and recover the funds.

Report the attack:

Reporting the attack to law enforcement can help prevent similar attacks.

Tools and Resources to Help Prevent Whaling Attacks

Fortunately, many resources and tools are available to help prevent whaling attacks. Here are a few that you may find helpful:

Email filtering tools

Email filtering tools can help identify and block suspicious messages before they reach your inbox.

Anti-phishing training

Many organizations offer programs that teach employees how to recognize and respond to phishing attacks.

Two-factor authentication

This security measure requires users to provide a second form of identification, such as a fingerprint or security token and a password.

Cybersecurity insurance

This type of insurance can assist in covering the costs of a data breach or cyber attack.

Training and Education on Whaling Attacks

One of the most critical steps to prevent whaling attacks is to educate yourself and your employees about the risks. Many cybersecurity training programs offer modules specifically focused on whaling attacks, providing information on recognizing and responding to these threats. Making these training sessions a regular part of your organization's ongoing education efforts is essential.

Legal Considerations for Whaling Attacks

In addition to the financial and reputational damage from a whaling attack, there may also be legal consequences. Many countries have data protection and privacy laws that require organizations to take steps to protect sensitive information. Failing to do so can consequence in fines, legal action, and other penalties. It is essential to consult with legal experts to validate that your organization complies with all applicable laws and regulations.

Whaling Attack Case Studies

To illustrate the severity of the whaling attack threat, let's look at some real-life case studies.

Case Study 1: Mattel

In 2015, toy manufacturer Mattel fell victim to a whaling attack that stole $3 million. The attack involved an email that appeared to be from the CEO, requesting that funds get transferred to a new vendor in China. The email appeared legitimate, and the staff processed the request without question. Staff later discovered that the email was not from the CEO but from a cybercriminal who had successfully impersonated him.

Case Study 2: Ubiquiti Networks

In 2015, networking equipment manufacturer Ubiquiti Networks fell victim to a whaling attack that stole $46.7 million. The attack involved a series of emails that appeared to be from a trusted executive requesting that funds get transferred to accounts in Hong Kong and the United Arab Emirates. The emails appeared legitimate, and the requests get processed without question.

Case Study 3: Snapchat

In early 2016, the social media application Snapchat fell target to a whaling attack when a high-ranking employee got emailed by a hacker impersonating the CEO and was fooled into disclosing employee payroll info. Snapchat notified the incident of the FBI and provided the employees affected by the leak with two years of free identity-theft insurance.


Whaling attacks are a severe and growing threat to organizations of all sizes. Understanding the risks and taking steps to prevent and respond to these attacks can help protect yourself and your organization from the devastating consequences of a whaling attack. Remember to stay vigilant, educate yourself and your employees, and seek out the resources and tools that can help keep you safe in the ever-evolving landscape of cyber threats.

Protect your organization from whaling attacks today by implementing strong security measures and educating your employees on recognizing and responding to these threats.

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Haseeb Awan
CEO, Efani Secure Mobile

I founded Efani after being Sim Swapped 4 times. I am an experienced CEO with a demonstrated history of working in the crypto and cybersecurity industry. I provide Secure Mobile Service for influential people to protect them against SIM Swaps, eavesdropping, location tracking, and other mobile security threats. I've been covered in New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, Mashable, Hulu, Nasdaq, Netflix, Techcrunch, Coindesk, etc. Contact me at 855-55-EFANI or haseebawan@efani.com for a confidential assessment to see if we're the right fit!

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